Hydrogeology is the study of groundwater, specifically, how it enters and flows through the earth’s subsurface and its interaction with the surrounding soil and rock. Hydrogeology maps and quantifies groundwater and studies the means by which it recharges, the paths it takes, the chemical composition and its quality. The groundwater level is an important parameter that influences the behavior of soil in drained and undrained conditions, and influences the design of sub-surface pipelines.
Hydrogeology is also known as geohydrology or groundwater hydrology.
Trenchlesspedia Explains Hydrogeology
Groundwater saturates the medium through which it passes and in which it is stored. When a gap is encountered by the groundwater — such as crevices, joints and discontinuities in rock cavities caused by weathering — water rises. A permeable medium also allows water to flow through, assisted by gravity and pressure difference.
The level of groundwater can change significantly depending on natural factors such as floods and droughts, as well as man-made factors such as dewatering and construction projects. These changes are studied by hydrogeologists over a period of time, and that data helps in assessing the current state of the groundwater in a particular area. Based on the data, laboratory testing of soil samples is conducted to determine the feasibility of construction projects such as trenchless pipeline installation.