# Tensile Force

Last updated: November 7, 2019

## What Does Tensile Force Mean?

Tensile force is the stretching forces acting on the material and has two components namely, tensile stress and tensile strain. This means that the material experiencing the force is under tension and the forces are trying to stretch it.

When a tensile force is applied to a material, it develops a stress corresponding to the applied force, contracting the cross-section and elongating the length.

## Trenchlesspedia Explains Tensile Force

The tensile strain ε is expressed as ε = ΔL/L. If a compressive force is applied, the compressive strain is expressed as ε = -ΔL/L. Based on Hooke's law, the relation between stress and strain is expressed as σ = Eε, where σ - stress, E - Young's modulus and ε - strain.

On receiving a tensile force, the material expands in the axial direction (longitudinal strain) while contracting in the transverse direction (transverse strain).

Stress is calculated as:

Stress (σ) = Force (F) / Area (A)

Strain is calculated as:

Strain (ε) = Extension in length (ΔL) / Length (L) 