Major Ion Mean?
Major ions are positively charged ions (cations) and negatively charged ions (anions) present in ground water. These ions contribute to the salinity of the water and have concentration greater than 1 ppm (part per million). The presence of some of these ions in potable water can cause damage to the water pipeline either by forming deposits or corroding the pipe.
Trenchlesspedia Explains Major Ion
The major cations present in water are calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. The major anions present in water are bicarbonate/carbonate, sulphate and chloride. As the water flows it picks up minerals and other chemicals on its way to the groundwater or to the river. As per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, the limit for dissolved minerals in drinking water are: sodium concentration: 200 mg/L, sulphate concentration: 400 mg/L.
Trenchless rehabilitation methods such as cured-in-place pipe (CIPP), sliplining and pipe bursting can be used to repair or replace pipes that have been damaged due to major ions.