An encrustation is a hard and thick layer on the surface of something that has built up over a long period of time. An encrustation may result from the deposit of minerals, such as manganese nodules on the ocean floor, and fossilized deposits of animal life on ocean ridges (coral reefs and coral islands) which now grace sides of highways and other materials appearing in ancient, subterranean sea beds which may interfere with horizontal drilling activities.
Trenchlesspedia Explains Encrustation
An encrustation can be a problem in many trenchless operations. For example, while drilling a horizontal bore through a lonely subterranean soil, the drill operator (the driller) may know that encounters with the limestone from an ancient seabed are absolutely certain. If the surface areas of that limestone are covered with small manganese modules, indivisible in ground penetrating radar (GPR) scans and potholing, or the design pathway has a significant amount of marl (a conglomerate harder than concrete, softer than steel), they can quickly damage drill bits) this encrustation of an ancient seabed may represent a costly problem for the driller in terms of damage equipment and time lost.